Innovation intermediaries as a response to system failures

Margherita Russo, Annalisa Caloffi, Federica Rossi and Riccardo Righi
published in  Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship, edited by Urban Gråsjö, Charlie Karlsson and Iréne Bernhard, Edward Elgar Publish., 2018, pp. 19-43, ISBN 978 1 78643 989 5

keywords: innovation policy; regional policy; innovation intermediaries; innovation poles; performance-based funding; evaluation; system failures, technology transfer

Abstract
Innovation intermediaries, i.e. intermediary organisations that support firm-level and collaborative innovation are a varied set of organisations that provide either networking services (e.g. support to R&D partnership formation and to university-industry collaborations) or other knowledge-intensive services (e.g. knowledge and technology mapping, various types of consultancy) or both. Since intermediaries can facilitate knowledge exchange among organisations with different languages, cultures, decision-making horizons, systems of incentives and objectives, they can play an important role in policies aimed at promoting innovation and technology transfer within local, regional and national innovation systems. In particular, as we will argue in this Chapter, the range of activities that intermediaries engage in can potentially address numerous failures in their innovation systems.
Our study provides a theoretical framework to address the mismatch between the policies’ objectives to address innovation system failures, on the one hand, and the indicators used to evaluate the intermediaries’ performance, on the other. By suggesting that the measurement of the intermediaries’ performance should be explicitly linked to their success in remedying such failures, this approach can then provide a guide to the design of appropriate indicators.
These issues are illustrated through a case study of publicly-funded innovation intermediaries in the Italian region of Tuscany in 2011-2014.

Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship

Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New Horizons in Regional Science series
Edited by Urban Gråsjö, PhD, School of Business, Economics and IT, University West, Trollhättan, Charlie Karlsson, Professor Emeritus of the Economics of Technological Change, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University and Professor Emeritus, Blekinge Institute of Technology and Iréne Bernhard, PhD, School of Business, Economics and IT, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden

Developed countries must be incredibly innovative to secure incomes and welfare so that they may successfully compete against international rivals. This book focuses on two specific but interrelated aspects of innovation by incumbent firms and entrepreneurs, the role of geography and of open innovation.
Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship discusses entrepreneurship from both theoretical and empirical viewpoints to provide readers with a wide range of cutting-edge and compelling studies. The authors highlight the critical importance of open innovation for performance and progress, putting forward determinants of economic growth and development rarely analysed in standard growth studies.
Researchers and students will find this book useful for innovation and entrepreneurship studies. It is also a helpful tool for policymakers, planners and consultants involved in economic development and regional policies.

Contributors: F. Armellini, T. Arvemo, C. Beaudry, I. Bernhard,P.-O. Bjuggren, A. Caloffi, N. Carbonara, A.P. Cornett, K. Delbiaggio, M. Elmoznino Laufer, S. Fredin, U. Gråsjö, C.J. Hauser, M. Héroux-Vaillancourt, A. Johnston, J.A. Jordaan, C. Karlsson, M. Kaufmann, P. Lassalle, M. Mahon, V. Monastiriotis, R. Pellegrino, H. Reijonen, R. Righi, S. Rohde, F. Rossi, M. Russo, J. Saastamoinen, T. Tammi, S. Yamamura

Contents:

1. Introduction: Geography, Open Innovation and Entrepreneurship
Urban Gråsjö, Charlie Karlsson and Iréne Bernhard

2. Innovation intermediaries as a response to system failures: creating the right incentives
Margherita Russo, Annalisa Caloffi, Federica Rossi and Riccardo Righi

3. Does collaboration with public and private sector actors in public procurement of innovations improve SME competitiveness?
Helen Reijonen, Jani Saastamoinen and Timo Tammi

4. Delivering innovation in public infrastructure through Public Private Partnerships
Nunzia Carbonara and Roberta Pellegrino

5. The influence of the NIH and NSH syndromes on the adoption of open innovation in the Canadian aerospace sector
Fabiano Armellini, Catherine Beaudry and Maria Mahon

6. Are the Most Innovative Canadian Nanotechnology-Related Firms also the Most Open?
Mikaël Héroux-Vaillancourt and Catherine Beaudry

7. The Proximity Bias of Communication Recorded on Twitter in Switzerland
Katia Delbiaggio, Christoph J. Hauser and Michael Kaufmann

8. Re-Conceptualising Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: A Theoretical Exploration of Evolution Over Space and Time
Andrew Johnston, Paul Lassalle and Sakura Yamamura

9. Stimulation of Entrepreneurship and Innovation as an Instrument in Regional Business Development Policy
Andreas P. Cornett

10. Startups, Financing and Geography – Findings from a survey
Per-Olof Bjuggren and Michel Elmoznino Laufer

11. A resource-based view of cross-border clusters: conceptualizing locational resources
Stephan Rohde

12. Regional path dependence and path creation: a conceptual way forward
Sabrina Fredin

13. Location, Localisation, Agglomeration: An Examination of the Geographical Dimension of FDI Spillovers
Jacob A. Jordaan and Vassilis Monastiriotis

14. Indicators of economic development – An exploratory study using Swedish municipal data contrasting economic development and growth
Tobias Arvemo and Urban Gråsjö

Index